Tuesday, December 26, 2006

History of India

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at Bhimbetka in the state of Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic Civilization which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country laying the foundations of ancient India.

The empire built by the Maurya dynasty under Emperor Ashoka the Great united most of modern Southern Asia except the Dravidian kingdoms in the south. From 180 BCE, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed including the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Indian Subcontinent. From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient India's "Golden Age." While the north had larger, fewer kingdoms, in the south there were several dynasties such as the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas in different times and regions.

Monday, December 18, 2006

Hail formation

Hail forms on condensation nuclei such as dust, bugs, or ice crystals, when super cooled water freezes on make contact with. In clouds contains large numbers of super cooled water droplets, these ice nuclei grow quickly at the expense of the liquid droplets because the saturation vapor pressure over ice is slightly less than the saturation vapor pressure over water. If the hail stones grow large enough, latent heat released by further freezing may melt the external shell of the hail stone. The development that follows, usually called wet growth, is more efficient because the liquid outer shell allows the stone to accrete other smaller hail stones in addition to super cooled droplets.

Once a hailstone become too heavy to be supported by the storm's updraft it falls out of the cloud. The reason rain can't fall, is typically because of the tough winds inside a thunderstorm cloud. These winds hold the rain and freeze it. As the process repeats, the hail grows gradually larger. When a hail stone is cut in half, a series of concentric rings, like that of an onion, are revealed. From these rings we can determine the total number of times the hail stone had traveled to the top of the storm before falling to the ground.

Tuesday, December 12, 2006

Mean sea level pressure

Mean sea level pressure is the pressure at sea level or the station pressure condensed to sea level assuming an isothermal layer at the station temperature. This is the pressure usually given in weather reports on radio, television, and newspapers. When barometers in the home are set to match the local weather reports, they measure pressure condensed to sea level, not the actual local atmospheric pressure. The reduction to sea level means that the usual range of fluctuations in pressure is the same for everyone. The pressures which are measured high pressure or low pressure do not depend on geographical location. This makes isobars on a weather map meaningful and useful tool. The altimeter setting in aviation, set either QNH or QFE, is another atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level, but the method of making this reduction differs slightly.

QNH barometric altimeter setting which will cause the altimeter to read airfield elevation when on the airfield. In ISA temperature conditions the altimeter will read altitude above mean sea level in the vicinity of the airfield.

QFE barometric altimeter setting which will cause an altimeter to read zero when at the reference datum of a particular airfield. In ISA temperature conditions the altimeter will read height above the datum in the vicinity of the airfield.

Monday, December 04, 2006

Immigration and multiculturalism

Since the time of olden Rome, the city has always been a site for colonization. This once extensive to all reaches of the Roman Empire, but was more cramped to the rest of Italy in later centuries, as Rome's political power waned. Still, many of its citizens' families invent from outside the city, and the Romanesco phrase Romano de Roma has been coined to indicate someone who descends from a family that has lived in Rome for at least seven generations, the mark of a "true" Roman.

Over the next half of 20th century, Rome has seen rising immigration from other countries. There currently is an important immigrant population, including a great number of clandestine. The 2005 ISTAT estimations state that 145,000 immigrants live in the comune, or 5.69% of the total comune inhabitants. The foreign population in the metropolitan area of Rome consists in 206,000 persons, or 5.37% of the total urban area population. The foreign population in the metropolitan area of Rome is about 248,000 persons or 4.67% of the whole metropolitan area population. By far the largest number of immigrants is Eastern European, with the largest figures of foreigners coming from Romania, The Philippines, Poland, Albania, Peru, Bangladesh, and Ukraine.

Probably as a result of its multiethnic past, the city has reacted with less complexity to the current waves of immigration into Italy. In meticulous, Mayor Walter Veltroni has made multiculturalism one of the key points of supporting program; inhabitants of Rome who are not citizens of an EU country are now permitted to elect their own legislature in the city council, even if they do not embrace formal legal residence in Rome.

Monday, November 27, 2006


Clothing is defined, in its broadest logic, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands, feet and head. Humans almost universally wear clothes, which are also known as dress, garments, attire, or apparel. People wear clothing for functional as well as for social reasons. Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. But every article of clothing also carries a civilizing and social meaning.
People also decorate their bodies with structure or foundation, perfume, and other decoration they also cut, dye, and arrange the hair of their heads, faces, and bodies, and sometimes also mark their skin. All these decorations add to the overall effect and message of clothing, but do not constitute clothing per se.
Articles approved rather than damaged are normally counted as fashion garnishes rather than as clothing. Jewelry and spectacles are usually counted as accessories as well, even though in ordinary speech these items are described as being worn rather than carried.

Wednesday, November 08, 2006

Construction techniques and design Closeup of Stonehenge from a distance is much speculation has surrounded the engineering feats required to build Stonehenge. Assuming the bluestones were brought from Wales by hand, and not transported by glaciers as Aubrey Burl has claimed, various methods of moving them relying only on timber and rope have been suggested. In a 2001 exercise in experimental archaeology, an attempt was made to transport a large stone along a land and sea route from Wales to Stonehenge. Volunteers pulled it for some miles on a wooden sledge over land, using modern roads and low-friction netting to assist sliding, but once transferred to a replica prehistoric boat, the stone sank in Milford Haven, before it even reached the rough seas of the Bristol Channel.As far as positioning the stones, it has been suggested that timber A-frames were erected to raise the stones, and that teams of people then hauled them upright using ropes. The topmost stones may have been raised up incrementally on timber platforms and slid into place or pushed up ramps. The carpentry-type joints used on the stones imply a people well skilled in woodworking and they could easily have had the knowledge to erect the monument using such methods. In 2003 retired construction worker Wally Wallington demonstrated ingenious techniques based on fundamental principles of levers, fulcrums and counterweights to show that a single man can rotate, walk, lift and tip a ten-ton cast-concrete monolith into an upright position. He is progressing with his plan to construct a simulated Stonehenge comprising of eight uprights and two lintels.Alexander Thom was of the opinion that the site was laid out with the necessary precision using his megalithic yard.The engraved weapons on the sarsens are unique in megalithic art in the British Isles, where more abstract designs were invariably favoured. Similarly, the horseshoe arrangements of stones are unusual in a culture that otherwise arranged stones in circles. The axe motif is, however, common to the peoples of Brittany at the time, and it has been suggested at least two stages of Stonehenge were built under continental influence. This would go some way towards explaining the monument's atypical design, but overall, Stonehenge is still inexplicably unusual in the context of any prehistoric European culture.Estimates of the manpower needed to build Stonehenge put the total effort involved at millions of hours of work. Stonehenge 1 probably needed around 11,000 man-hours of work, Stonehenge 2 around 360,000 and the various parts of Stonehenge 3 may have involved up to 1.75 million hours of work. The working of the stones is estimated to have required around 20 million hours of work using the primitive tools available at the time. Certainly, the will to produce such a site must have been strong, and it is considered that advanced social organisation would have been necessary to build and maintain it.

Wednesday, November 01, 2006

Disk of the Milky
The major disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is about 80,000 to 100,000 light years in diameter, about 250-300 thousand light years in circumference, and outside the Galactic core, about 1,000 light years in thickness. It is calm of 200 to 400 billion stars. As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if the galaxy were reduced to 130 km in diameter, the solar system would be a mere 2 mm in width. The Galactic Halo enlarges out to 250,000 to 400,000 light years in diameter. As detailed in the Structure section below, new discoveries indicate that the disk extends much farther than previously thought.The Milky Way's absolute magnitude, which cannot be measured directly, is assumed by astronomical convention to be -20.5, although other authors give an absolute magnitude of -21.3.

Wednesday, October 04, 2006

Pain is an unpleasant feeling which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional mechanism.
According to the International friendship for the Study of Pain (IASP), one should distinguish between pain and nociception. The sound "pain" comes from
the Latin "poena" meaning a fine, a penalty.The word "pain" is a subjective experience that typically accompanies nociception, but can also arise without any incentive, and thus includes the
emotional response. Nociception, on the other hand, is a neurophysiological term and denotes particular activity in nerve pathways. It is the broadcast
mechanism for physiological pain, and does not describe psychological pain. These pathways pass on the nominally "painful" signals, though they are not
forever perceived as painful. Although pain can be associated with tissue spoil or inflammation, this is often not the case.Despite its unpleasantness, pain is a dangerous component of the body's defense system. It is part of a rapid warning relay instructing the motor neurons
of the middle nervous system to minimize noticed physical harm. Lack of the ability to experience pain, as in the rare condition congenital selfishness to
pain or Congenital Analgesia, can cause assorted health problems.The two most widespread forms of pain reported in the U.S. are headache and back pain. Pain is also a term purposely used to denote a painful uterine
contraction occurring in childbirth.

Sunday, August 13, 2006

A team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a expert batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five expert bowlers. Teams nearly always include a specialist wicket-keeper since the importance of this fielding position.
A player who excellent in both batting and bowling is known as an all-rounder. One who excellent as a batsman and wicket-keeper is known as a wicket-keeper/batsman, occasionally regarded as a type of all-rounder. True all-rounder are unusual and valued.

The playing field
A normal cricket ground, showing the cricket pitch, close-infield within 15 yards (13.7 m) of the striking batsman, infield inside the white 30 yard (27.4 m) circle, and outfield, with sight screens beyond the boundary at either end.
A wicket consists of three stumps, upright wood stakes that are hammered into the ground, topped with two wooden crosspieces, known as bails. The standard fielding positions in cricket for a right-handed batsman are reversed for a left-handed batsman. The spots are only indicative, as fielders may stand in any part of the ground. Only nine fielders are existing in addition to the bowler and wicketkeeper, so there are always many unprotectedareas.
A perception view of the cricket pitches from the bowler's end. The bowler runs in past one side of the wicket at the bowler's end, either 'over' the wicket or 'round' the wicket.